The Middle Ages (Part III) Turin and the Duchy of Savoy In 1418 Ludovico, the last descendant of the Savoy-Acaia line, died without descendants. Consequently Turin and Piedmont fell back under the direct rule of Amadeus VIII, who in 1416 had obtained permission from the Emperor Sigismund to transform his count title into a Duchy.
In 1424 the Duke of Savoy founded the Principality of Piedmont and since then the title has been conferred upon the ducal heir. Then a work of administrative unification began involving the various parts of the state with the establishment of two Ducal councils, one in Savoy and one in Piedmont or, according to the name of the period, an Oltremontano Council and a Cismontano Council.
With regard to 1453, during the reign of Duke Ludovico there was a noteworthy event traditionally known as the Eucharistic Miracle of Turin. In commemoration of it a small chapel was erected at the place where the miracle had occurred and then it was made into the church called Corpus Domini. In 1472 the first printing shop was opened in Turin and in 1495 the first text in the vernacular was published: Fior di vita.
The most important Renaissance building in Turin is the cathedral, whose construction began in 1490 and ended in 1498. The death in 1472 of the Duke Amedeo IX, who left an heir, Filiberto I, a minor, opened a period of strife and instability in the duchy, an instability that also became connected to the friction between the Piedmontese and Savoyard component.
The dynastic struggles came to an end in 1496 when Philippe de Bresse, nicknamed lackland became Duke, though briefly. The French occupation The sixteenth century opened with the clash between the French imperialism of Francis I and the empire of Charles V. The conflict also involved Piedmont and Turin.
In an attempt to avoid the worst, for years the Dukes of Savoy oscillated between the two fields without being able to prevent their lands from being crossed by the armies of the two factions.
In 1510 the situation was also aggravated by an epidemic that broke out in the city and further impoverished the population in 1515 raising the city to the honor of being an Archbishop See was not sufficient to revive its fortunes, an act that came after protests over the creation of the Diocese of Saluzzo that led to detachment from the Turin see of the lands of the Marquis. Belatedly, realizing the vulnerability of Turin, Duke Charles II ordered a strengthening of the defensive wall, which was, in fact, still the Roman wall.","The erection of four modern bastions, that is able to resist artillery fire, at the corners of the city plus one more, called the barbican/rivellino? placed to protect the castle. In 1536 King Francis I ordered the occupation of the duchy of Savoy and on 3 April the French troops entered Turin, abandoned by Duke on March 27, and brought with them the artillery of the city and met with no resistance. Among the first actions of the occupants was to fortify the city. The bastions built earlier were completed and connected it each other by a new defensive curtain up against the old Roman walls.
To allow the shooting of the guns placed on the ramparts all buildings outside the walls surrounding the city were demolished, and so disappeared the villages of Dora, Po and Porta Segusina, the ancient abbey of San Solutore and even the last remains of the Roman amphitheater.
New city walls were mentioned in the work Gargantua and Pantagruel: In order to integrate the new territories in the kingdom of France, a parliament similar to those found in other French provinces was established in 1539, replacing the ducal council. However, the new owners were not seen in a positive way because of the heavy tax exactions were imposed to finance the war and even actions such as closing the University. After years of ups and downs, in 1557, the French were defeated at the Battle of San Quentin, by Emanuele Filiberto, the son of Charles II. Then with the Peace Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis they had to return in 1559 Turin, Savoy and Piedmont to the Savoyard Duke. Turin, capital of the duchy Even before repossessing the city in 1561, Emanuele Filiberto made two “revolutionary- decisions: he decided to transfer the capital of his land from Chambery, in Savoy, to Turin and ordered that all official acts of the duchy were written in Italian .
Both these decisions were taken to remedy the military, political and social vulnerability of the capital being too close to the kingdom of France. Emanuele Filiberto realized that the only hope of expanding his dominions were to head toward Italy.
The works began on 7 February 1563 and for many years consumed all the energy of the city, to the point that a ducal edict was issued that prohibited any other construction in the meantime.
Work began February 7, 1563 and for some years absorbed all the energy of the city to the point that a ducal edict forbade any other building in the meantime. The Duke's interest in defending the city was accompanied by numerous other initiatives aimed at making it more lavish as his capital. Considering the old fortified house of Acaia no longer suitable as a residence, he order the start of construction of a building in the area behind the cathedral, next to the bishop's palace which was being used as a temporary residence. In and around the city several country residences were built or modernized for the leisure of the Duke, his court and guests.
In addition to the castles of Lucento and Rivoli, Emanuele Filiberto also ordered the purchase of the Birago family villa located near the banks of the Po. Then he had it turned into a castle surrounded by a park (this was the origin of the Parco del Valentino and the castle of the same name).
In 1568, with the purchase of several hundred -giornate- of land, began the development of the country residence later known as the -Regio Parco- [Royal Park] (later devastated during the siege of Turin in 1706, and transformed into Manifattura Tabacchi [tobacco factory], while the area of the park would be used, in part, to build the Main Cemetery of Turin). In 1566 the town obtained the return of Studio that the Duke had originally granted to the town of Mondovi.
Then in 1578 Turin was the destination for massive pilgrimages following the transfer of the Shroud at the behest of Emanuele Filiberto as a favor to Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, who had expressed the desire to venerate the relic from Chambery. The destruction of villages outs")"


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