The History of Turin
The Middle AgesThe medieval town During the Middle Ages
Torino was a small town divided into four districts, each of which took its name from one of the ancient Roman gates: Porta Castello (Decumana), Porta Segusina (Pretoria), Porta Marmorea e Porta Palatina.
Like other Italian cities at the time, Torino grew in height, increasing the levels of the structures within the Roman era fortifications. The common peoples housing had stone walls, but the roof was generally made of straw, and only after a raging fire that destroyed part of the city in 1448, was a law passed which required them to be made of stone.
Among the few traces that have survived to present is the Romanesque bell tower of St. Andrea (now the Consolata, altered considerably).
The streets of Turin were small and narrow, and they were often developed to the detriment of the traditional square layout of the Roman -castrum-. The current day Via Garibaldi was narrow and had a sewer running along it; the best area was probably located in the vicinity of Via Roma. Many of the buildings we have today were already standing back then. First and foremost, the fortified complex of Porte Palatine; even the cathedral was already present, built in the sixth century. A building not visible today, that used to stand near the present Piazza Cesare Augusto, was the Palace of the Lords, where many sovereigns, locals and other people sojourned, including Henry VII.
Outside the city, near the present day village of Borgo Vittoria and Madonna di Campagna, was the leper colony, although few people in the city were affected by the disease.
With the fall of the Western Roman Empire,Turin also became involved in the struggles for control of Italy. In around 49 the Burgundians led by their king, Gundobado, we're called upon by Odoacer to help them, whereupon they plundered the region. They brought abundant booty back over the Alps consisting of goods and slaves. [Citation needed] When, finally, Theodoric was able to prevail over his opponent, it was the bishop of Turin, Victor, who along with Epiphanius, bishop of Pavia were ordered to go to Lyon to meet with Gundobado and demand the return of those who were were captured and enslaved during the plunder. In addition to this event, we know very little of what happened to the city during the Dominion of the Goths, except for the names of some bishops who succeeded each other in leading the diocese: Tigridia around 501, Rufo from 550 - 560 and Ursicino from 562- 609.
Ursicino, who was a spectator of the Lombard conquest, unsuccessfully opposed the decision of the Frankish king of Bourgogne, Gontrad, who had occupied the valleys of Susa and Aosta as far as the -enclosures- , to detach Maurienne from the diocese of Turin. The Lombard duchy In 569 the city was occupied by the Lombards that they put it at the head of one of the duchies on the border with the lands of the Franks. Most likely during that time some of the city structures are transformed into fortified buildings . In 590 the Duke of Turin, Agilulfo, married Teodolinda who was the widow of King Autari, and the following year he was recognized as king by the other Lombard dukes.
Agilulfo set up his own Palace (Curtis ducis) in the buildings still stand in the current day Piazza IV Marzo which may have corresponded to the the ancient seat of the Roman magistrates. Agilulfo was of the Aryan religion but was influenced by his Catholic wife who tried to start the conversion of his people to the Church of Rome. Upon her wish, St. John the Baptist was proclaimed patron of the city and it may be that the church was also consecrated to him. date now houses the city cathedral which previously housed the temple dedicated to the Turin martyrs Solutore, Avventore and Ottavio. Another Lombard Duke of Turin, who later ascended to the throne of Pavia, was Arioaldo. After him came a a phase of continuous fighting in which the rule of the duc","The domination of the Franks and the Holy Roman Empire
In 773 Charlemagne, having defeated the Lombards, entered Turin, which did resist, and instated his Comital representatives in the city. This made the city center a -free- county free having the same territorial expanse as the Lombard duchy. Some documents, primarily arbitrations of disputes concerning territorial or individual rights, list the names of some counts of the city.
In 818 by order of Louis the Pious, Claudius became bishop of Turin and distinguished himself among the iconoclasts in the dispute over the question that pervaded the Church of Rome. Among the counts who governed Turin in those years was also Ugo di Spoleto in 889. In 940 the Count Arduino il Glabro was invested the title of Count of Turin by Hugh of Provence, crowned King of Italy, .
A few years later Berengar II snatched the throne from Hugh, he put Arduino at the head of the newly formed Marquisate? of Turin, a feudal situation that joined, in addition to Turin, several free committees: Asti, Alba, Albentimillio (Ventimiglia) e The new feudal setup did not keep the city safe from the dangers posed by the Hungarians? and Saracens, according to a Hungarian chronicler who reports that in 954 both Susa and Turin were sacked by the Hungarians. In the following years the Saracens settled in Frassineto, on the Cote d'Azur to ravage the lands of the Turinese Marq, forcing even the monks of the Novalesa Abbey to abandon it and seek refuge first in Turin and then in Bremen.
Main change in construction, in Turin, associated with the establishment of the brand was the transformation of the Porta Decumana (port Susa) in the castle, where Arduinic Marquises resided. Arduino was succeeded by his son Mangifredo who passed his title to Olderico Manfredi, his son in around 1000. in 1035 Olderico Manfredi died leaving only three daughters: the eldest was Adelaide, who became the de facto heir of the Turin marquisate. Shortly after her father's death Adelaide married Hermann of Swabia, the stepson of the Emperor Conrad the Salic. Herman, however, died in 1038 and in 1042 Adelaide married Enrico del Monferrato. Nor did this marriage last long, as Henry died, most likely in 1045. Adelaide's new consort was Oddone, the cadet son of the first Count of Maurienne, Humbert, nicknamed Biancamano, a native of Burgundy. From this marriage sprang the interest and the influence of the House of Savoy in Torino.")"
VALUES ("ENG","2011","","49","January - March","Taboo - Nudity","","Some time ago we saw a TV documentary titled -Taboo - Nudity.- Apart from some gibberish and inconsistencies in the program, and things that have nothing to do with nudity, we must say we were impressed by some aspects of the kind of nudism practiced in the United States.
Americans, as everyone knows, are very pragmatic and consequently end up oversimplifying issues. They do it for everything, and they do with naturism. They simply refer to naturism as nudism (which is what they want it to mean) while ignoring that this term was abandoned by Europeans not only for reasons of expediency, but for all the implications of the term, i.e. anthropological, philosophical, ethical, social, etc. in the broadest sense.
Nevertheless, we were impressed by some aspects of American nudism and the religious aspect that distinguishes certain groups of nudists in the great mosaic of the myriad American States. Similarly we were impressed by some aspects of Australian nudism when combined with esoteric cults, such as witchcraft, which almost seem like a naturist heresy. In the introduction to the documentary, however, it was stated right from the start that in Western society the human body in its natural state, i.e. naked, is a controversial topic. Then it added that for some people, removing their clothes is an act of liberation, an innocent return to nature. While for others, to show their naked body in public would be unthinkable, considering such an act simply indecent. For still others, not only would it be indecent, but even outrageous.
All of this is right: we would also like to note that, according to the naturist philosophy, removing one’s clothes also means recovering one’s identity. The documentary went on to say that there are people, however, who go beyond merely embracing their nakedness. On the contrary, they go so far as to consider it a cult, as in Australia and England. Yet in the eyes of those do not really know our philosophy, it might seem that nudity is a -cult-.
But we would like to clarify and reiterate that nudity is the basic principle of naturism, without which it would be pointless. Considering nakedness a -cult-, the documentary went on to say, means recovering ancient pagan rituals that are celebrated in the nude, so there is nothing standing between the devotee and the universe - - the individual connects to the universal energy. We have nothing to detract from the fact that people get naked to connect with universal energy - if that is possible - and that in order to do it they dust off a few innocent pagan rituals, though we dare not think of the bloody rituals that have fortunately remained in the remote past. We only reject that witchcraft should be a part of it because it has nothing to do with naturist nudism.
The documentary then lamented the fact that the people in Australia and England who have revived ancient pagan rituals and witchcraft are not considered ordinary people. On this point we take exception only to the fact that, while it is true that such people should not be considered normal, it is not because they practice pagan rituals naked, but simply because they believe in witchcraft, and we dare not think they still believe witches can fly on brooms.
Paganism is one of the oldest religions, yet it is the most misunderstood. It seeks order and balance, as explained in the documentary: instead of a supreme God, pagans worship nature and archaic divinities: everything comes from nature and to nature it must return. We have no objections about the concepts of these neo-pagans regarding nature. We only opine that to seek -order, balance, and harmony- all you need is the naturist philosophy and not excuses made up to justify certain behaviors. Sociology says that this new essentially pagan form of worship with an Anglo-Saxon matrix, a kind of -naturist- religion, which celebrates the forces of nature in a state of nudity, has been spreading in the shadows of a society victimized by the","Christianity, said the documentary, has influenced and conditioned the relationship with the nudity in many cultures. Its message has always been simple and unequivocal: nudity in public leads to lust and licentiousness while clothes keep temptation in check. Nevertheless in the United States, precisely in Westfield, Vermont, there is a group of nudists who believe in the Christian faith. The leader of this group holds Bible reading sessions in his home and clothes are optional.
This group sees the episode of Adam and Eve (who became self-consciousness after eating the forbidden fruit) differently than the Church: God made us in His image and likeness, so considering a naked person obscene is like saying God Himself is indecent. On this point we do not object at all because if we did, we would have to discuss religious matters and we do not claim to know such matters. A believer, however, cannot help but agree on the above assertion.
The documentary delved further into the religious issue by interviewing some Christian American nudists: -To live naked in private, at home, is one thing,- they said. -But to live naked in public is another matter- (this is absolutely true and naturism is well aware of it, otherwise there would be no repression). However, beyond this obvious statement, there are those who go beyond the simple practice of nudity in spite of the entrenched taboo. In the United States, this time in Virginia, there is another group of Christian nudists who go to church services naked; they pray together naked and go to weddings and funerals naked.
They do so, they say, because the naked body exists even when we keep it hidden behind clothes:-God made us this way, fat or thin, tall or short, healthy or sick, good or bad. Human beings, despite aesthetic diversity, are a beautiful creation, a wonderful machine that never ceases to amaze us“. For many practicing Catholics, these Christian nudists added, this collective nudity in church is an image that defiles the sanctity of worship, while for others the ritual is almost a blasphemy. “When we pray to God, the Christian nudists reply, clothing is irrelevant, in fact it is counterproductive because praying dressed removes the principle of humility which informs Christianity”.
Here again we do not feel compelled to intervene because this argument is flawless, from the point of view of the writer who is not a believer but saw the interest in the celebration of Mass at the 32nd World Naturist Congress held in Calabria in September last year at the Pizzo Greco Campground. According to the documentary -The statistics say that 65% of Christians are nudists. In the U.S. alone there are 50,000 nudists, of whom 32,000 are Christians, but few of them practice nudity in church though the Bible never says nudity is a sin. In the last century this was the controversy that divided religious persons from nudists. “Initially the Christian tradition had associated clothes with vanity, frivolity and sin.- Even on this point, for the reasons stated above, we have no objections.
We nevertheless think that -true- Christians should recognize the validity of these claims. Another American nudist center, -White Tail Park Resort-, has over five hundred nudist members: -To be naked,- they say -is not just a matter of sex or exhibitionism, but freedom and acceptance of ourselves as we are and others as they are. For us, nudism is not a religious choice but the choice of a lifestyle that is free, less hypocritical, where two fundamental concepts are freedom and acceptance of oneself.- These nudists openly criticize the position of the traditional Christians who say that showing one's naked body, especially to people of the opposite sex violates a moral code. According to this moral code, nudity and sex are inseparable.